Conceptual Knowledge

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Question 1
Free
Multiple Choice

Two different definitions of ___________ offered by your book include (a) "the mental representation of a class or individual," and (b) "categories of objects, events, and abstract ideas."

Choose correct answer/s
A

exemplars

B

concepts

C

units

D

prototypes

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Question 2
Free
Multiple Choice

Not all of the members of everyday categories have the same features. Most fish have gills, fins, and scales. Sharks lack the feature of scales, yet they are still categorized as fish. This poses a problem for the ___________ approach to categorization.

Choose correct answer/s
A

prototype

B

exemplar

C

definitional

D

family resemblance

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Question 3
Free
Multiple Choice

The definitional approach to categorization

Choose correct answer/s
A

is not well suited for geometrical objects but works for familiar everyday objects.

B

sets definite criteria called family resemblances that all category members must have.

C

doesn't work well for most natural objects like birds, trees, and plants.

D

was proposed to replace the prototype approach.

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Question 4
Free
Multiple Choice

The principle illustrated when most people are able to recognize a variety of examples of chairs even though no one category member may have all of the characteristic properties of "chairs" (e.g., most chairs have four legs but not all do) is

Choose correct answer/s
A

family resemblance.

B

prototypicality.

C

graded membership.

D

instance theory.

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Question 5
Free
Multiple Choice

___________ is a "typical" member of a category.

Choose correct answer/s
A

A prototype

B

An exemplar

C

A unit

D

A component

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Question 6
Multiple Choice

The prototype approach to categorization states that a standard representation of a category is based on

Choose correct answer/s
A
the definition of the category.
B
a universal set of category members.
C
a defined set of category members.
D
category members that have been encountered in the past.
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Question 7
Multiple Choice

Which approach to categorization involves forming a standard representation based on an average of category members that a person has encountered in the past?

Choose correct answer/s
A
Exemplar
B
Network
C
Typicality
D
Prototype
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Question 8
Multiple Choice

Jorge and Bob are neighbors. Jorge loves birds and his father works for the zoo. He has been to a dozen bird sanctuaries, and he and his dad go on bird watching hikes once a month. In contrast, Bob doesn't think much about birds. His only contact with them is in his backyard. It would be correct to say that Jorge's standard probably involves

Choose correct answer/s
A
more prototypes than Bob's.
B
more exemplars than Bob's.
C
more prototypes and more exemplars than Bob's.
D
the same prototypes and exemplars as Bob's.
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Question 9
Multiple Choice

A task for determining how prototypical an object is would be

Choose correct answer/s
A
a fill in the blank task where participants generate paired members within a category.
B
a task where participants rate the extent to which each member represents the category title.
C
a task where participants rate the extent to which category members resemble one another.
D
a fill in the blank task where participants generate the category classification for a list of members.
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Question 10
Multiple Choice

Items high on prototypicality have ___________ family resemblances.

Choose correct answer/s
A
no
B
weak
C
moderate
D
strong
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Question 11
Multiple Choice

Which of the following reaction time data sets illustrates the typicality effect for the bird category, given the following three trials?
(NOTE: Read data sets as RTs for Trial 1: Trial 2: Trial 3)
Trial 1: An owl is a bird.
Trial 2: A penguin is a bird.
Trial 3: A sparrow is a bird.

Choose correct answer/s
A
583: 518: 653 ms
B
518: 583: 653 ms
C
583: 653: 518 ms
D
653: 583: 518 ms
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Question 12
Multiple Choice

According to the typicality effect

Choose correct answer/s
A
objects in a category have a family resemblance to one another.
B
objects that are not typical stand out and so are more easily remembered.
C
items that are high in prototypicality are judged more rapidly as being in a group.
D
we remember typical objects better than nontypical objects.
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Question 13
Multiple Choice

For the category "fruit," people give a higher typicality rating to "banana" than to "kiwi." Knowing that, we can also reason that

Choose correct answer/s
A
the word "fruit" will lead to a larger priming effect for banana than for kiwi.
B
when people are asked to list all the fruits they can think of, kiwi will usually appear on their list before banana.
C
neither kiwi nor banana is likely to be the fruit "closest" to the prototype of the fruit category.
D
people will have a similar number of exemplars for kiwi and banana.
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Question 14
Multiple Choice

Priming occurs when presentation of one stimulus

Choose correct answer/s
A
disrupts the processing of another stimulus.
B
acts as a cue that tells the participant when his or her response was correct.
C
facilitates the response to another stimulus that usually follows closely in time.
D
relates to a prototype in a way that is unrelated to associated exemplars.
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Question 15
Multiple Choice

Rosch found that participants respond more rapidly in a same-different task when presented with "good" examples of colors such as "red" and "green" than when they are presented with "poor" examples such as "pink" and "light green." The result of this experiment was interpreted as supporting the ___________ approach to categorization.

Choose correct answer/s
A
exemplar
B
prototype
C
network
D
parallel processing
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Question 16
Multiple Choice

If you say that "a Labrador retriever is my idea of a typical dog," you would be using the ___________ approach to categorization.

Choose correct answer/s
A
exemplar
B
definitional
C
family resemblance
D
prototype
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Question 17
Multiple Choice

___________ are actual members of a category that a person has encountered in the past.

Choose correct answer/s
A
Icons
B
Prototypes
C
Units
D
Exemplars
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Question 18
Multiple Choice

An advantage of the exemplar approach over the prototype approach is that the exemplar approach provides a better explanation of the ___________ effect.

Choose correct answer/s
A
resemblance
B
typicality
C
priming
D
reaction time
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Question 19
Multiple Choice

Which approach to categorization can more easily take into account atypical cases such as flightless birds?

Choose correct answer/s
A
Exemplar
B
Prototype
C
Definitional
D
Network
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Question 20
Multiple Choice

Imagine that a young child is just learning about the category "dog." Thus far, she has experienced only two dogs, one a poodle and the other a German shepherd. On her third encounter with a dog, she will be LEAST likely to correctly categorize the animal as a dog if that animal

Choose correct answer/s
A
matches the size of the poodle but is of a different breed.
B
is a breed of dog that is hairless and teacup-sized.
C
matches an exemplar of one of the dogs she has experienced.
D
is similar to an "average" for the dogs she has encountered.
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