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Question 1
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Decision making is an unconscious process of moving toward a desirable state of affairs.

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Question 2
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The rational choice paradigm states that effective decision makers begin at any step in the model.

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Question 3
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Subjective expected utility refers to how much the selected alternative benefits or satisfies the decision maker.

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Question 4
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Ill-defined problems require a nonprogrammed decision process.

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Question 5
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If a decision maker encounters the same problem several times, he or she can increasingly rely on nonprogrammed decision routines to solve the problem.

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Question 6
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The last step in the rational decision-making model is to evaluate the decision outcomes

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Question 7
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The rational choice paradigm is inherently logical, as such it an always be applied in realistic situations.

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Question 8
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The textbook argues that problem identification is usually the least important step in the rational choice paradigm.

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Question 9
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One reason why the problem identification stage is imperfect is that various stakeholders try to "frame" the decision maker's view of the situation.

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Question 10
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Our mental models of the world can prevent us from recognizing emerging problems in the workplace.

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Question 11
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The decision-making process is more effective when problems are defined in terms of their solutions.

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Question 12
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Decision makers have a need to reduce uncertainty, so they tend to focus on solutions before fully understanding the problem.

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Question 13
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One way to improve problem identification is for leaders to create a norm of "divine discontent," in which they are never satisfied with the status quo, and this aversion to complacency creates a mindset that more actively searches for problems and opportunities.

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Question 14
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Decision makers can discover blind spots in problem identification by discussing the situation with other people.

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Question 15
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According to bounded rationality theory, people make better decisions when their perceptions are "bounded" or framed by past experience.

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Question 16
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Bounded rationality adopts the main assumptions of the rational choice paradigm of decision making.

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Question 17
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The rational choice paradigm assumes that decision makers have well-articulated and agreed-on organizational goals.

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Question 18
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The rational choice paradigm assumes that people rely on logic to evaluate and choose alternatives.

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Question 19
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Decision makers typically look at alternatives sequentially and compare each alternative to an implicit favourite.

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Question 20
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Decision heuristics automatically distort either the probability of outcomes or the value (utility) of those outcomes.

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