to shock the audience and elicit a response
to introduce new material and to grab the audience's attention
to grab the audience's attention and to elicit a response
to summarize the speech and to provide closure
restating the main ideas
providing new material
invoking guilt in the audience
fading out gradually
verbal and nonverbal signals.
a formal statement expressing your intent to provide closure.
the exact same closing line you used in your introduction.
a startling quote or statistic.
a concluding summary statement.
a startling statement.
a reemphasis on the central idea.
a statement to motivate the audience to respond.