Epigenetic Influences On Gene Expression

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Question 1
Free
Multiple Choice

Which term or phrase is used to describe the ability of the environment to cause different phenotypes to develop from the same genotype?

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A

Developmental plasticity

B

Histone modification

C

Phenotype variability

D

Nutrigenomics

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Question 2
Free
Multiple Choice

How is alcohol consumption thought to increase methylation in cancer suppressor genes to increase the risk for head and neck cancer?

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A

Preventing DNA repair

B

Enhancing cell division

C

Acting as a methyl donor

D

Activating select oncogenes

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Question 3
Free
Multiple Choice

What would be the expected outcome for a person who has a normal gene allele and an abnormal gene allele for insulin and the area around the abnormal gene allele isheavily methylated?

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A

Normal insulin is produced in normal amounts.

B

Normal insulin is produced in lower-than-normal amounts.

C

Abnormal insulin is produced in normal amounts.

D

Abnormal insulin is produced in higher-than-normal amounts.

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Question 4
Free
Multiple Choice

Which statement regarding the influence of epigenetic changes on gene expression is always true?

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A

The change must be inherited from the parent of the same gender as the child for expression to be affected.

B

Although gene expression is changed by inheriting these changes, the gene's DNA sequence remains unaffected.

C

Epigenetic changes must first occur in the parental somatic cells in order to be inherited.

D

These changes occur throughout the genome rather than in the area of any single specific gene.

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Question 5
Free
Multiple Choice

What part of a chromosome's DNA is altered by histone modification?

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A

Complementary base pairing

B

Attachment of phosphate groups

C

Development of telomeric "caps"

D

The degree of tension in helical tightness

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Question 6
Multiple Choice

What would be the expected result when the area around an oncogene is hypomethylated?

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A
Cell division increases; cancer risk increases.
B
Cell division increases; cancer risk decreases.
C
Cell division decreases; cancer risk decreases.
D
Cell division decreases; cancer risk increases.
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Question 7
Multiple Choice

By which mechanism does microRNA "silence" gene expression?

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A
Preventing cytoplasm from coming into contact with the gene
B
Surrounding mRNA and preventing attachment of ribosomes
C
Binding to mRNA and keeping it double stranded
D
Substituting a thymine for uracil
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Question 8
Multiple Choice

Which statement about the microbiome is true?

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A
The microbiome does not undergo further changes after development is complete.
B
With aging, its influence on health is reduced.
C
The microbiome is necessary for good health.
D
Identical twins have identical microbiomes.
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Question 9
Multiple Choice

How is eating a diet high in broccoli thought to reduce cancer risk?

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A
Increasing the excretion rate of foods known to be methyl donors
B
Increasing histone acetylation, turning on anticancer genes
C
Decreasing the rate of microDNA synthesis and activity
D
Decreasing the exposure of carcinogens to nuclear DNA
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Question 10
Multiple Choice

How does histone modification alter gene expression?

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A
Modified histones result in increased DNA methylation, which increases the transcription of genes in that area.
B
In areas where histones are modified, the DNA is more tightly wound, and genes are not transcribed.
C
Histone modification results in an increase in microRNA production, which inhibits gene expression by preventing translation.
D
Histone modification results in an increase in microRNA production, which promotes gene expression by enhancing translation.
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Question 11
Multiple Choice

In fragile X syndrome, only noncoding regions within the gene for a protein that directs and maintains brain development are heavily methylated, resulting indecreasedcognitive ability and behavioral problems. What is the most likely mechanism of this abnormal expression?

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A
Increased microRNA molecules reducing the synthesis of the gene product
B
Failure of the methylated regions to undergo translation
C
Suppression of the "splicing out" action for introns
D
Suppression of promoter function
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