Everyday Memory And Memory Errors

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Question 1
Free
Multiple Choice

Autobiographical memory research shows that a person's brain is more extensively activated when viewing photos

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A

the person has seen before.

B

of familiar places.

C

the person took himself or herself.

D

the person has never seen before.

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Question 2
Free
Multiple Choice

For most adults over age 40, the reminiscence bump describes enhanced memory for

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A

childhood and adolescence.

B

adolescence and young adulthood.

C

young adulthood and middle age.

D

childhood and middle age.

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Question 3
Free
Multiple Choice

Asking people to recall the most influential events that happened during their college careers shows that __________ in people's lives appear to be particularly memorable.

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A

trauma-based experiences

B

family-centered challenges

C

the freshman year

D

transition points

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Question 4
Free
Multiple Choice

The observation that older adults often become nostalgic for the "good old days" reflects the self-image hypothesis, which states that

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A

life in a society gets more complicated and difficult as generations pass.

B

memory for life events is enhanced during the time we assume our life identities.

C

people tend to remember more of the positive events in their lives than negative ones.

D

our memories change as we live longer and have more "lifetime periods" to draw events from.

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Question 5
Free
Multiple Choice

Schrauf and Rubin's "two groups of immigrants" study found that the reminiscence bump coincided with periods of rapid change, occurring at a normal age for people emigrating early in life but shifting to 15 years later for those who emigrated later. These results support the

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A

cognitive hypothesis.

B

self-image hypothesis.

C

narrative rehearsal hypothesis.

D

autobiographical hypothesis.

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Question 6
Multiple Choice

Extrapolating from the cultural life script hypothesis, which of the following events would be easiest to recall?

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A
Retiring from work at age 40
B
Marrying at age 60
C
Graduating from college at age 22
D
Having a child at age 45
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Question 7
Multiple Choice

Stanny and Johnson's "weapons focus" experiment, investigating memory for crime scenes, found that

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A
the presence of a weapon enhances memory for all parts of the event.
B
the presence of a weapon has no effect on memory for the event.
C
the threat of a weapon causes people to focus their attention away from the weapon itself.
D
the presence of a weapon hinders memory for other parts of the event.
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Question 8
Multiple Choice

Flashbulb memory is best represented by which of the following statements?

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A
It is vivid memory for emotional events.
B
It is vivid, highly accurate memory for the circumstances surrounding how a person heard about an emotional event.
C
It is memory for the circumstances surrounding how a person heard about an emotional event that remains especially vivid but not necessarily accurate over time.
D
It is vivid, highly accurate memory for emotional events.
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Question 9
Multiple Choice

A lesson to be learned from the research on flashbulb memories is that

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A
rehearsal cannot account for them.
B
people's confidence in a memory predicts its accuracy (high confidence = high accuracy).
C
extreme vividness of a memory does not mean it is accurate.
D
they are permanent and resist forgetting.
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Question 10
Multiple Choice

Experiments that argue against a special flashbulb memory mechanism find that as time increases since the occurrence of the flashbulb event, participants

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A
remember more details about the event.
B
make more errors in their recollections.
C
report less confidence about their recollections.
D
report less vivid recollections of the event.
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Question 11
Multiple Choice

Your text describes an experiment by Talarico and Rubin (2003) that measured people's memories of the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001. Which of the following was the primary result of that research?

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A
Participants had very little confidence in the accuracy of their memories of the events 32 weeks after they occurred.
B
Participants had a very high level of confidence of the terrorist events and also had high confidence in their present "everyday" memories 32 weeks later.
C
Participants had high confidence in the accuracy of their memories of the terrorist events 32 weeks later, but when actually tested made significant errors when asked what they were doing on the day of the attacks.
D
After 32 weeks, participants had a high level of confidence in their memories of the terrorist events, but lower belief in their memories of "everyday" events.
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Question 12
Multiple Choice

The idea that we remember life events better because we encounter the information over and over in what we read, see on TV, and talk about with other people is called the

Choose correct answer/s
A
narrative rehearsal hypothesis.
B
cognitive hypothesis.
C
life-narrative hypothesis.
D
reminiscence hypothesis.
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Question 13
Multiple Choice

According to the ______ approach to memory, what people report as memories is based on what actually happened plus additional factors such as other knowledge, experiences, and expectations.

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A
event-specific
B
source
C
constructive
D
misinformation
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Question 14
Multiple Choice

The "telephone game" is often played by children. One child creates a story and whispers it to a second child, who does the same to a third child, and so on. When the last child recites the story to the group, his or her reproduction of the story is generally shorter than the original and contains many omissions and inaccuracies. This game shows how memory is a __________ process.

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A
life-narrative
B
narrative-rehearsal
C
consequentiality based
D
constructive
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Question 15
Multiple Choice

In the "War of the Ghosts" experiment, participants' reproductions contained inaccuracies based on

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A
narrative rehearsal.
B
source misattributions.
C
cultural expectations.
D
shallow processing.
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Question 16
Multiple Choice

Bartlett's experiment in which English participants were asked to recall the "War of the Ghosts" story that was taken from the French Indian culture illustrated the

Choose correct answer/s
A
misinformation effect.
B
familiarity effect.
C
constructive nature of memory.
D
reminiscence bump.
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Question 17
Multiple Choice

The repeated reproduction technique used in memory studies involves

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A
the same participants remembering some information at longer and longer intervals after learning the information.
B
different groups of participants remembering some information across different periods of time after learning the information.
C
the same participants remembering some information for as many trials as it takes to recall all of the information correctly.
D
the same participants recalling some information many times but, each time, receiving different retrieval cues to assist their recall.
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Question 18
Multiple Choice

Wei has allergy symptoms. He has gone to his regular doctor and an allergy specialist, but he wasn't given a prescription by either doctor. Instead, he was advised to buy an over-the-counter medicine. While he was in the specialist's waiting area, he read a magazine where he saw three ads for an allergy medicine called SneezeLess. A week later, in a drug store, Wei says to his brother, "My doctor says SneezeLess works great. I'll buy that one." Wei and his doctor never discussed SneezeLess. Wei has fallen victim to which of the following errors?

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A
MPI
B
Recovered memory
C
Schema confusion
D
Source monitoring
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Question 19
Multiple Choice

Unconscious plagiarism of the work of others is known as

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A
narrative rehearsal.
B
cryptoamnesia.
C
repeated reproduction.
D
repeated recall.
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Question 20
Multiple Choice

Jacoby's experiment, in which participants made judgments about whether they had previously seen the names of famous and non-famous people, found that inaccurate memories based on source misattributions occurred after a delay of

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A
one week.
B
24 hours.
C
one hour.
D
one month.
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