Nightingale gathered scientific data.
Nightingale calculated statistics to report her findings.
Nightingale communicated her findings to powerful others.
Nightingale based her nursing practice on her findings.
Quantitative longitude cohort
Qualitative case study
It includes formalized internal feedback loops.
Its triggers can have their origins practically anywhere.
It generates change in practice solely through research.
It implies a layer of policy development.
It addresses multiple disciplines' impacts on quality.