Fluid, Electrolyte, And Acid-base Balance

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Question 1
Free
Multiple Choice

The two organs that play an important role in maintaining acid-base balance are the

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A

liver and gallbladder.

B

liver and kidneys.

C

heart and lungs.

D

lungs and kidneys.

E

heart and liver.

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Question 2
Free
Multiple Choice

Intracellular fluid (ICF) is found only within

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A

blood vessels.

B

lymph.

C

the cells of the body.

D

the interstitial space.

E

the cerebrospinal fluid.

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Question 3
Free
Multiple Choice

Substances that can carry electrical current across cell membranes are called

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A

electrons.

B

electrolytes.

C

nonelectrolytes.

D

osmoregulators.

E

buffers.

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Question 4
Free
Multiple Choice

Homeostatic mechanisms that monitor and adjust the composition of body fluids respond to changes in the ________ fluid.

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A

lymphatic

B

intracellular

C

plasma

D

extracellular

E

cerebrospinal

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Question 5
Free
Multiple Choice

In an adult female, the body consists of about ________ percent water.

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A

60

B

50

C

40

D

70

E

80

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Question 6
Multiple Choice

All of the following are components of ECF except

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A
cerebrospinal fluid.
B
peritoneal fluid.
C
lymph.
D
aqueous humor.
E
RBCs.
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Question 7
Multiple Choice

In a lean adult male, the body consists of about ________ percent water.

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A
60
B
90
C
40
D
10
E
80
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Question 8
Multiple Choice

The principal cation in intracellular fluid is

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A
sodium.
B
potassium.
C
calcium.
D
magnesium.
E
chloride.
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Question 9
Multiple Choice

The anions in highest concentration in the extracellular fluid are

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A
sodium, chloride, and bicarbonate.
B
sodium, potassium, and bicarbonate.
C
sodium, potassium, and chloride.
D
proteins, bicarbonate, and chloride.
E
sodium, potassium, and phosphate.
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Question 10
Multiple Choice

Which hormone plays a central role in determining the rate of sodium reabsorption and potassium secretion?

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A
ADH
B
aldosterone
C
BNP
D
ANP
E
epinephrine
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Question 11
Multiple Choice

Which hormone most affects the osmolarity of blood?

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A
ADH
B
angiotensin II
C
PTH
D
ANP
E
epinephrine
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Question 12
Multiple Choice

Which hormone(s) is released by heart muscle in response to excessive chamber volume?

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A
ADH
B
aldosterone
C
PTH
D
acetylcholine
E
natriuretic peptides
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Question 13
Multiple Choice

In clinical estimates, ________ of total body water is in the ICF and ________ in the ECF.

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A
one-tenth; nine-tenths
B
one-quarter; three-quarters
C
one-half; one-half
D
two-thirds; one-third
E
one-third; two-thirds
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Question 14
Multiple Choice

The release of atrial naturetic peptides from the heart will cause the body to

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A
conserve sodium ions.
B
decrease ECF.
C
excrete potassium ions.
D
conserve sodium ions and decrease ECF.
E
excrete sodium ions and decrease ECF.
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Question 15
Multiple Choice

Angiotensin II produces a coordinated elevation in the ECF volume by all of the following mechanisms except

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A
stimulating thirst.
B
causing the release of ADH.
C
triggering the production and secretion of aldosterone.
D
stimulating the kidneys to conserve sodium.
E
increasing PNS activity.
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Question 16
Multiple Choice

Aldosterone

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A
is secreted in response to decreased levels of potassium in the blood.
B
promotes sodium retention in the kidneys.
C
helps decrease blood volume and lower blood pressure.
D
regulates blood calcium levels.
E
regulates water reabsorption in the kidneys.
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Question 17
Multiple Choice

The principal ions in extracellular fluid are sodium, chloride, and

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A
potassium.
B
magnesium.
C
phosphate.
D
bicarbonate.
E
iodine.
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Question 18
Multiple Choice

________ promotes water reabsorption at the kidneys and stimulates thirst.

Choose correct answer/s
A
ADH
B
Aldosterone
C
Calcitonin
D
Renin
E
Natriuretic peptide
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Question 19
Multiple Choice

The two major subdivisions of the ECF are the

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A
ICF and plasma.
B
interstitial fluid and plasma.
C
lymph and plasma.
D
serous fluids and lymph.
E
interstitial fluid and CSF.
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Question 20
Multiple Choice

The principal ions in intracellular fluid are magnesium, phosphate and

Choose correct answer/s
A
sodium.
B
bicarbonate.
C
chloride.
D
calcium.
E
potassium.
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