Foundations Of Nineteenth Century Europe

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Question 1
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Multiple Choice

The Congress of Vienna's goal was to

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A

promote national self-determination.

B

restore the balance of power.

C

contain Prussian aggression.

D

allocate overseas colonies fairly among the Great Powers.

E

contain Metternich's expansionist ambitions.

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Question 2
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Multiple Choice

Which of the following was NOT a consequence of the Congress of Vienna?

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A

Prussia: acquired territory in Saxony and the Rhineland

B

Austria: achieved dominance in northern Italy

C

Russia: granted independence to Poland

D

Netherlands: became independent

E

France: regained most of its territory

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Question 3
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Multiple Choice

When Napoleon fled Elba and returned to France in March 1815,

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A

much of the French army defected to his side.

B

he regained rule of France after Louis XVIII fled the country.

C

he ensured that the final peace would be harsher against France.

D

he undermined Bourbon authority.

E

All these answers are correct.

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Question 4
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Multiple Choice

Metternich's dream of a Concert of Europe to maintain the established order failed

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A

because Britain disapproved of direct intervention in the affairs of other European states.

B

because Alexander I set up a Holy Alliance to compete with the Concert.

C

because the Prussians did not want to take part in an organization that was dominated by Metternich.

D

both because Britain disapproved of direct intervention in the affairs of other European States and because Alexander I set up a Holy Alliance to compete with the Concert.

E

All these answers are correct.

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Question 5
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Multiple Choice

The Decembrists

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A

assassinated Alexander.

B

upheld serfdom.

C

called for a Russian constitution.

D

were defeated by Alexander.

E

called for the restoration of Napoleon.

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Question 6
Multiple Choice

Why, in spite of agitation in parts of the Austrian Empire, were the Habsburgs able to maintain control?

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A
The claims of the monarchy's opponents were often conflicting.
B
The government always responded quickly to any sign of discontent.
C
The government called in its allies in the Concert of Europe.
D
The Habsburgs capitulated to nationalist demands.
E
All these answers are correct.
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Question 7
Multiple Choice

Although a German Confederation was formed at the Congress of Vienna, German unification was prevented by

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A
the rivalry of Austria and Prussia.
B
the conflicting ambitions of individual German princes.
C
German distaste for reform.
D
all of these: the rivalry of Austria and Prussia; the conflicting ambitions of individual German princes; and German distaste for reform.
E
None of these answers is correct.
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Question 8
Multiple Choice

Which best describes the fortunes of political reformers in Spain and Italy in the decade after the fall of Napoleon?

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A
Revolts in favor of a constitutional government were put down by outside forces.
B
Free press led to occasional arrests but brought reformers a mass following.
C
Reformers gained the support of the Catholic Church.
D
Their movements lost ground as traditional rulers proved capable of providing stable, efficient governments.
E
Italian intervention prevented the establishment of a constitutional government.
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Question 9
Multiple Choice

After the fall of Napoleon, France

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A
reverted to the social and political order that had characterized the old regime before 1789.
B
was refused a place among the great nations of Europe.
C
kept many changes of the revolutionary and Napoleonic regimes.
D
experienced more repression than any other European country.
E
disintegrated into civil war.
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Question 10
Multiple Choice

Great Britain pioneered the use of more efficient technology for coal and iron extraction because

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A
as a dominant power its military need for weapons was greater.
B
it had exhausted its forests as a source of fuel.
C
it imported large amounts of these resources from its colonies.
D
it was able to imitate key discoveries of continental inventors.
E
All these answers are correct.
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Question 11
Multiple Choice

The French Revolution and the Napoleonic decades contributed to the industrialization of nineteenth-century Europe in all EXCEPT which of the following ways?

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A
Security of land tenure made peasants firm defenders of private property.
B
Old commercial restrictions and guilds had been abolished.
C
The Napoleonic Code introduced uniform and clear regulations.
D
The Continental System had stimulated economic growth.
E
Transportation had improved under Napoleon.
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Question 12
Multiple Choice

Which statement does NOT explain why industrial change became a self-sustaining process in early nineteenth-century Britain?

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A
Growth in one economic sector created incentives for change in others.
B
The amount of capital available for investment was expanding.
C
Small-scale manufacturing was literally wiped out, creating a large labor pool and a demand for more mechanization.
D
Railways allowed labor and goods to reach places where they were needed.
E
New inventions spurred new industries.
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Question 13
Multiple Choice

By the 1850s which areas of Europe had experienced major industrialization?

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A
Belgium, France, northern Italy, western Germany
B
Belgium, eastern Germany, Austria, Russia
C
France, Belgium, Austria, Russia
D
southern Italy, southern France, eastern Germany, Russia
E
Prussia, France, and Austria
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Question 14
Multiple Choice

Government policy in all EXCEPT which of the following areas was an important part of early industrialization?

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A
railroad building
B
the reduction of trade barriers
C
the stabilization of the currency
D
laws benefiting business organization
E
social welfare programs for workers
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Question 15
Multiple Choice

Which was NOT true of life as a factory worker in the early nineteenth century?

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A
A high percentage of workers were women and children.
B
Employers used fines and physical punishment to impose discipline.
C
Government regulation protected workers from cyclical unemployment.
D
Workers frequently labored twelve hours or more a day.
E
Children and women were paid less than men.
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Question 16
Multiple Choice

Economic differentiation meant that

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A
different countries specialized in economic activities most suited to their climate and resources.
B
different types of business organization were allowed by law.
C
workers had to learn a variety of skills to stay employed.
D
groups and institutions became more specialized by function as industrialization progressed.
E
family members specialized in distinct skills.
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Question 17
Multiple Choice

In middle-class families of the nineteenth century,

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A
childhood lasted longer than before.
B
women were expected to be the guardians of domestic harmony and moral values.
C
conventional behavior and manners were strongly encouraged.
D
a wife's leisure was a sign of her husband's success.
E
All these answers are correct.
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Question 18
Multiple Choice

Which statement is true about nineteenth-century industrial workers?

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A
Housing conditions were better than in the country.
B
Working conditions made them highly susceptible to diseases such as tuberculosis.
C
For the most part, employment was dependable.
D
No matter how poor their wages, they could count on being paid.
E
Workers' standard of living dramatically increased in the late nineteenth century.
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Question 19
Multiple Choice

Which of the following is true of changes in the standard of living in the first half of the nineteenth century?

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A
There is not complete agreement on this question among historians.
B
The middle and upper classes made spectacular advances.
C
While real wages were higher than before, few workers were permanently employed.
D
Some skilled workers were noticeably better off.
E
All these answers are correct.
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Question 20
Multiple Choice

The class that benefited most from industrialization was

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A
the working class.
B
the nobility.
C
the middle class.
D
peasants.
E
women.
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