Genetics, Evolution, Development, And Plasticity

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Question 1
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 The fluid-filled cavity within the neural tube becomes the central canal of the spinal cord and the four ventricles of the brain.

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Question 2
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 Axons are usually formed before the dendrites.

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Question 3
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 After cells have differentiated as neurons or glia, they migrate.

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Question 4
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 Myelination of the brain and spinal cord is complete by the time of birth.

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Question 5
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 Synaptogenesis is a process that begins before birth and continues throughout life.

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Question 6
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 Recent evidence suggests that adult vertebrate brains generate new neurons.

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Question 7
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 Apoptosis is distinct from necrosis, which is death caused by an injury or a toxic substance.

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Question 8
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 The developing infant brain is highly resistant to damage.

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Question 9
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 The most common cause of brain damage in children is closed head injury.

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Question 10
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 The damaging effects of a stroke can be limited if treated within a short period of time.

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Question 11
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 Diaschisis refers to the decreased activity of surviving neurons after damage to other neurons.

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Question 12
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 Sex-linked genes are usually found on the Y chromosome.

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Question 13
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 To determine the contributions of heredity and environment, researchers rely mainly on studies of monozygotic and dizygotic twins.

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Question 14
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 Genes become more prevalent in a population if they contribute to reproductive success.

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Question 15
Multiple Choice

 The ability of the brain to change its anatomy over time, within limits, is known as ____ .

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A
plasticity
B
regression
C
connectivity
D
long term potentiation
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Question 16
Multiple Choice

 The fluid-filled cavity of the developing neural tube becomes the ____ .

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A
forebrain
B
midbrain
C
spinal cord
D
ventricular system
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Question 17
Multiple Choice

 Early in development, the nervous system begins as a ____ .

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A
tube surrounding a fluid-filled cavity
B
spherical structure in the center of the embryo
C
diffuse system of cells scattered throughout the body
D
single layer of cells covering the heart and other internal organs
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Question 18
Multiple Choice

 Proliferation is the ____ .

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A
production of new cells
B
movement of primitive neurons and glia
C
formation of dendrites and an axon
D
insulation process that occurs on some axons
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Question 19
Multiple Choice

 After cells have differentiated as neurons or glia, they ____ .

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A
differentiate
B
proliferate
C
myelinate
D
migrate
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Question 20
Multiple Choice

 Chemicals known as ____ and ____ guide neuron migration.

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A
immunoglobulins; sodium
B
glia; neurothrophins
C
immunoglobulins; chemokines
D
chemokines; neurothrophins
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