Historical Factors: Community Health Nursing In Context

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Question 1
Free
Multiple Choice

Which of the following best describes the time period when communities began to agree on collective action to stay healthy?

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A

When industrialization occurred

B

When large urban centers began to develop and the population expanded

C

When people gathered together to settle in villages

D

When people were nomads engaged in hunting and gathering

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Question 2
Free
Multiple Choice

Which of the following best describes the first measures used by large communities to ensure community health?

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A

Building safe sewage disposal systems

B

Healthy food choices and exercise

C

Praying to the gods for preservation

D

Use of medicine and other herbal remedies

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Question 3
Free
Multiple Choice

A nurse has determined that there is always a consistent level of people in the population who experience pneumonia. Which of the following best describes the prevalence of this disease?

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A

Prevalent

B

Endemic

C

Epidemic

D

Pandemic

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Question 4
Free
Multiple Choice

Which of the following best describes an innovation introduced by the Romans?

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A

Citizenship duties

B

Daily street cleaning

C

Hospitals and nursing homes

D

Daily exercise

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Question 5
Free
Multiple Choice

Which of the following best describes a modern public health practice that was originally developed as a means of self-protection from the Black Death (bubonic plague)?

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A

Care in a hospital

B

Chemical intervention

C

Isolation and quarantine

D

Herbal remedies

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Question 6
Multiple Choice

Which of the following diseases provided immunity to smallpox?

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A
Cowpox
B
Measles
C
Mumps
D
Scarlet fever
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Question 7
Multiple Choice

A scholar during the Sanitary Revolution created medical topographies. What was the advantage of these surveys?

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A
Citizens knew which wells were safe to use for drinking water.
B
People knew what housing areas to avoid.
C
Results demonstrated environmental factors related to regional disease.
D
The king could isolate areas of disease from safe areas.
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Question 8
Multiple Choice

How did Edwin Chadwick's ideas help decrease disease in the nineteenth century?

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A
The minimum wage was increased leading to improved quality of life.
B
Parish workhouses where poverty-level children labored for their room and board were closed.
C
Social reform legislation resulted in changes such as sidewalks.
D
The new emphasis on individual responsibility encouraged people to act to protect their own health.
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Question 9
Multiple Choice

Which of the following best describes how John Snow was able to decrease deaths from cholera?

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A
Removed a source of contaminated water
B
Created the world's first antibiotic
C
Encouraged the new process of vaccination
D
Helped pass laws that required home quarantine
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Question 10
Multiple Choice

Which of the following best describes the achievement that Lemuel Shattuck is well known for in the United States?

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A
Publishing the census of Boston, which demonstrated the effect of sanitary reforms
B
Demonstrating the usefulness of vital statistics by analyzing environmental data
C
Developing ideas about public health care reform, which were eventually adopted
D
Establishing a state board of health to deal with the problems he had noted
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Question 11
Multiple Choice

Which of the following nursing interventions would have most likely been used by Florence Nightingale when treating wounded soldiers?

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A
Establishing private visits with spouses
B
Improving food, clothing, and cleanliness
C
Administering intravenous medications
D
Completing a community assessment of the army hospital
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Question 12
Multiple Choice

Which of the following best describes how Nightingale responded to challenges about her suggestions for reform of health care?

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A
She influenced male friends as political leaders to publicize her ideas.
B
She conveyed her statistical data in more detail and depth, and shared it with political leaders.
C
She encouraged those who challenged her to come up with more acceptable approaches to lowering the death rate.
D
She understood their concerns and tried to word her suggestions in a more politically acceptable way.
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Question 13
Multiple Choice

When comparing a surgeon today with a surgeon of Nightingale's time, which of the following best describes the primary difference in how they would operate on a patient?

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A
Current physicians have better surgical equipment (tools).
B
Current physicians have nursing support staff in the operating room.
C
Current physicians would carefully scrub between cases.
D
Current physicians would prescribe antibiotics in the operating room to avoid possible infections.
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Question 14
Multiple Choice

Which of the following scientific beliefs or ideas eventually changed medical practice and decreased morbidity and mortality?

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A
Bad fluids cause disease, which can be cured by their removal.
B
Specific contagious organisms cause disease.
C
Spontaneous generation theory-disease grows naturally.
D
The miasmic theory-environmental conditions cause disease.
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Question 15
Multiple Choice

Why did local and state governments start to become more involved in controlling disease?

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A
Hospitals were becoming overcrowded.
B
Businesses were unable to make a profit when employees were ill.
C
Physicians demanded government support in their individual efforts.
D
Citizens were becoming upset with local conditions.
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Question 16
Multiple Choice

Which of the following interventions was the first step in controlling the incidence of tuberculosis (TB)?

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A
Institutions were required to report TB cases.
B
Federal funding was devoted to seeking TB causes and cures.
C
Physicians began surveillance of TB cases.
D
States built large public hospitals to treat patients with TB.
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Question 17
Multiple Choice

Which of the following best describes the overall result of Abraham Flexner's report?

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A
All medical schools reorganized into the German model.
B
Citizens were encouraged to become more involved in medical education.
C
Folk healers again became more widely used than physicians.
D
Funding was withdrawn from weak medical schools.
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Question 18
Multiple Choice

Which of the following groups was primarily responsible for the establishment of the first school of public health?

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A
The American Medical Association
B
The Association of State Departments of Public Health
C
The federal government
D
The Rockefeller Foundation
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Question 19
Multiple Choice

A family living in England in 1860 was part of the community where district nursing was implemented. Who would most likely have seen this family?

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A
A social worker and a nurse
B
A health teacher and a nurse
C
A nurse
D
A physician and a nurse
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Question 20
Multiple Choice

Which of the following interventions was most helpful in assisting people become educated on healthful living in nineteenth-century England?

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A
Brochures were distributed without charge in public places.
B
Health visitors joined nurses in providing care in the homes.
C
Nurses spent the majority of their time teaching families.
D
Schools set up health programs for neighborhood adults.
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