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Question 1
Free
Multiple Choice

Aclient who has vague symptoms of fatigue and headaches is found to have a positive enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibodies. In discussing the test results with the client, which of the following information should thenurseinclude?

Choose correct answer/s
A

The EIA test will need to be repeated to verify the results.

B

A viral culture will be done to determine the progress of the disease.

C

It will probably be 10 or more years before the client develops acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).

D

The Western blot test will be done to determine whether AIDS has developed.

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Question 2
Free
Multiple Choice

Aclient is admitted to the hospital with Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PCP) and HIV testing is positive. Based on diagnostic criteria established by the World Health Organization (WHO), which of the following diagnoses should the nurse anticipate?

Choose correct answer/s
A

Acute infection

B

Early chronic infection

C

Intermediate chronic infection

D

Late chronic infection or AIDS

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Question 3
Free
Multiple Choice

After having a positive rapid-antibody test for HIV, a client is anxious and does not appear to hear what the nurse is saying. Which of the following actions should the nurse implement?

Choose correct answer/s
A

Teach the client about the medications available for treatment.

B

Inform the client how to protect sexual and needle-sharing partners.

C

Remind the client about the need to return for retesting to verify the results.

D

Ask the client to notify individuals who have had risky contact with the client.

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Question 4
Free
Multiple Choice

Aclient who has diagnosed with AIDS tells the nurse, "I have lots of thoughts about dying. Do you think I am just being morbid?" Which of the following responses by the nurse is most appropriate?

Choose correct answer/s
A

"Thinking about dying will not improve the course of AIDS."

B

"It is important to focus on the good things about your life now."

C

"Do you think that taking an antidepressant might be helpful to you?"

D

"Can you tell me more about the kind of thoughts that you are having?"

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Question 5
Free
Multiple Choice

Apregnant woman with a history of early chronic HIV infection is seen at the clinic. Which of the following information should the nurse include when teaching the client?

Choose correct answer/s
A

The antiretroviral medications used to treat HIV infection are teratogenic.

B

Most infants born to HIV-positive mothers are not infected with the virus.

C

Since she is at an early stage of HIV infection, the infant will not contract HIV.

D

It is likely that her newborn will become infected with HIV unless she uses antiretroviral drug therapy (ART).

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Question 6
Multiple Choice

The nurse is caring for a client whose HIV status is unknown. Which of these client exposures is most likely to require postexposure prophylaxis for the nurse?

Choose correct answer/s
A
Needle stick with a needle and syringe used to draw blood
B
Splash into the eyes when emptying a bedpan containing stool
C
Contamination of open skin lesions with client vaginal secretions
D
Needle stick injury with a suture needle during a surgical procedure
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Question 7
Multiple Choice

Replication of HIV is enhanced when the client is taking which of the following herbs?

Choose correct answer/s
A
Echinacea
B
St. John's wort
C
Fish oil
D
Saw palmetto
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Question 8
Multiple Choice

The nurse is caring for a client with HIV who has a CD4+ cell count of 400/µL. Which of the following factors is most important to consider when determining whether antiretroviral therapy (ART) will be initiated for this client?

Choose correct answer/s
A
Client social support system
B
HIV genotype and phenotype
C
Potential medication adverse effects
D
Client ability to comply with ART schedule
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Question 9
Multiple Choice

Which of the following clients will the nurse working in an HIV testing and treatment clinic anticipate teaching about antiretroviral therapy (ART)?

Choose correct answer/s
A
A client who is currently HIV negative but has unprotected sex with multiple partners
B
A client who was infected with HIV 15 years ago and now has a CD4+ count of 840/µL
C
An HIV-positive client with a CD4+ count of 120/µL who drinks a fifth of whiskey daily
D
A client who tested positive for HIV 2 years ago and has cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease
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Question 10
Multiple Choice

When assessing an individual who has diagnosed with early chronic HIV infection and has a normal CD4+ count, which of the following assessments should the nurse conduct?

Choose correct answer/s
A
Check neurological orientation.
B
Ask about problems with diarrhea.
C
Palpate the regional lymph nodes.
D
Examine the oral mucosa for lesions.
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Question 11
Multiple Choice

Which of the following tests does the Canadian Blood Services use to detect HIV genetic material in blood?

Choose correct answer/s
A
CD4+ T-cell count
B
HIV RNA polymerase chain reaction test
C
Nucleic acid amplification test
D
CD4 fraction
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Question 12
Multiple Choice

A young adult who uses injectable illegal drugs asks the nurse about preventing AIDS. Which of the following information should the nurse inform the client is the best way to reduce the risk of HIV infection from drug use?

Choose correct answer/s
A
Participate in a needle-exchange program.
B
Clean drug injection equipment before use.
C
Ask those who share equipment to be tested for HIV.
D
Avoid sexual intercourse when using injectable drugs.
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Question 13
Multiple Choice

Which of the following nursing actions will be most useful in assisting a young adult college student to adhere to a newly prescribed antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimen?

Choose correct answer/s
A
Give the client detailed information about possible medication adverse effects.
B
Remind the client of the importance of taking the medications as scheduled.
C
Encourage the client to join a support group for students who are HIV positive.
D
Check the client's class schedule to help decide when the ART should be taken.
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Question 14
Multiple Choice

The nurse is caring for a client with HIV infection who has developed Mycobacterium avium complex infection. Which of the following goals is most appropriate for this client?

Choose correct answer/s
A
Be free from injury.
B
Receive immunizations on time.
C
Ensure adequate oxygenation.
D
Maintain intact perineal skin.
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Question 15
Multiple Choice

A client who has been treated for HIV infection for 7 years has developed fat redistribution to the trunk, with wasting of the arms, legs, and face. Which of the following topics should the nurse include in the client teaching plan?

Choose correct answer/s
A
The benefits of daily exercise
B
Foods that are higher in protein
C
Treatment with antifungal agents
D
A change in antiretroviral therapy
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Question 16
Multiple Choice

The nurse is preparing to give the following medications to an HIV-positive client who is hospitalized with Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PCP). Which of the following medications is most important to administer at the right time?

Choose correct answer/s
A
Nystatin tablet
B
Oral abacavir
C
Aerosolized pentamidine
D
Oral acyclovir
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Question 17
Multiple Choice

Which of the following tests is used to evaluate the effectiveness of ART?

Choose correct answer/s
A
Viral load testing
B
Enzyme immunoassay
C
Rapid HIV antibody testing
D
Immuno-fluorescence assay
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Question 18
Multiple Choice

Which information about an HIV-positive client who is taking antiretroviral medications is most important for the nurse to address when planning care?

Choose correct answer/s
A
The client's blood glucose level is 168 mg/dL.
B
The client complains of feeling "constantly tired."
C
The client is unable to state the adverse effects of the medications.
D
The client states "sometimes I miss a dose of zidovudine (AZT)."
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Question 19
Multiple Choice

Ten years after seroconversion, an HIV-infected client has a CD4+ cell count of 800 cells per microlitre and an undetectable viral load. Which of the following actions is the priority nursing intervention at this time?

Choose correct answer/s
A
Monitor for symptoms of AIDS.
B
Teach about the effects of antiretroviral agents.
C
Encourage adequate nutrition, exercise, and sleep.
D
Discuss likelihood of increased opportunistic infections.
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Question 20
Multiple Choice

The nurse is caring for a pregnant client who has recently been diagnosed with HIV. The client asks the nurse, "How soon after delivery of my baby can ART treatment be started?" Which of the following provide the basis for the nurse's response?

Choose correct answer/s
A
It can be initiated while you are pregnant.
B
It will start as soon as your baby is born.
C
It depends upon whether you are breastfeeding your baby or not.
D
It cannot begin until 7 days postpartum.
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