Language

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Question 1
Free
Multiple Choice

Language consists of smaller components, like words, that can be combined to form larger ones, like phrases, to create sentences, which themselves can be components of a larger story. This demonstrates the ____________________ property of language.

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A

hierarchical

B

relational

C

parallel

D

propositional

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Question 2
Free
Multiple Choice

Which property below is NOT one of the characteristics that makes human language unique?

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A

Hierarchical structure

B

Communication

C

Governed by rules

D

It involves arrangement of a sequence of symbols

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Question 3
Free
Multiple Choice

Yoda, a central character of the Star Wars movies created by George Lucas, has a distinctive way of speaking. His statement, "Afraid you will be," violates which property of the English language?

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A

Language involves the use of a lexicon.

B

Coding is required for language.

C

Language symbols must have high discriminability.

D

Language has a structure that is governed by rules.

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Question 4
Free
Multiple Choice

Evidence that language is a social process that must be learned comes from the fact that when deaf children find themselves in an environment where there are no people who speak or use sign language, they

Choose correct answer/s
A

lose the ability to communicate in any way.

B

invent a sign language themselves.

C

start speaking out loud even though they cannot hear themselves.

D

demonstrate compensatory regeneration of lost auditory neural pathways.

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Question 5
Free
Multiple Choice

In New Guinea, tribes that had been isolated for centuries were found that they

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A

had a large number of sophisticated language systems.

B

had languages that were more primitive than languages of most non-isolated societies.

C

communicated by hand signals but not verbal language as we know it.

D

had just a few language systems that were all governed by similar rules.

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Question 6
Multiple Choice

B.F. Skinner, the modern champion of behaviorism, proposed that language is learned through

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A
parsing.
B
genetic coding.
C
syntactic framing.
D
reinforcement.
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Question 7
Multiple Choice

Noam Chomsky proposed that

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A
humans are genetically programmed to acquire and use language.
B
language is learned through the mechanism of reinforcement.
C
as children learn language, they produce only sentences they have heard before.
D
the underlying basis of language is different across cultures.
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Question 8
Multiple Choice

One of Chomsky's most persuasive arguments for refuting Skinner's theory of language acquisition was his observation that children

Choose correct answer/s
A
produce sentences they have never heard.
B
show similar language development across cultures.
C
are rewarded for using correct language.
D
learn to follow complex language rules, even though they are not aware of doing so.
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Question 9
Multiple Choice

Ty has finished work on his doctoral dissertation. He studied how most adults understand words, specifically the priming effects of categorically related words, and submitted a proposal to be included in a psychological conference to present his work to his peers. Presentations at the conference are grouped based on the particular topic in psychology under consideration. It is most likely that Ty's work will be presented in a conference session on

Choose correct answer/s
A
psychophysics.
B
psychoacoustics.
C
neuropsychology.
D
psycholinguistics.
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Question 10
Multiple Choice

Lilo can't wait for school to start. This year is the first time she gets to take a foreign language class, and she is taking Japanese. Dr. Nabuto is a professor interested in studying how people learn additional languages later in life, and he is including Lilo's class in his research. Dr. Nabuto is most likely studying

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A
language comprehension.
B
language acquisition.
C
speech production.
D
speech parsing.
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Question 11
Multiple Choice

Ron is an avid reader. He has a large vocabulary because every time he comes across a word he doesn't know, he looks it up in the dictionary. Ron encounters "wanderlust" in a novel, reaches for the dictionary, and finds out this word means "desire to travel." The process of looking up unfamiliar words increases Ron's

Choose correct answer/s
A
lexicon.
B
parser.
C
syntactical capacity.
D
mental set.
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Question 12
Multiple Choice

Pollack and Pickett's experiment on understanding speech found that when participants were presented with individual words taken out of conversations (single words presented alone with no context), they could identify

Choose correct answer/s
A
100 percent of the words spoken by their own voices.
B
50 percent of the words spoken by their own voices.
C
50 percent of the words spoken by others with an accent similar to theirs.
D
none of the words spoken by others.
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Question 13
Multiple Choice

When the front part of a sentence can be interpreted more than one way, but the end of the sentence clarifies which meaning is correct, we say that the sentence is an example of

Choose correct answer/s
A
parsing.
B
temporary ambiguity.
C
speech segmentation.
D
lexical priming.
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Question 14
Multiple Choice

The word frequency effect refers to the fact that we respond more

Choose correct answer/s
A
slowly to low-frequency words than high-frequency words.
B
slowly to letters appearing in nonwords than letters appearing in words.
C
quickly to letters that appear multiple times in a word than just once in a word.
D
quickly to phonemes that appear multiple times in a word than just once in a word.
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Question 15
Multiple Choice

Which set of stimuli would be the best selection for having people perform a lexical decision task?

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A
Common words "cat, boat" and uncommon words "peon, furtive"
B
Concrete words "window, monkey" and abstract words "doubt, energy"
C
Words "pizza, history" and nonwords "pibble, girk"
D
Correctly spelled words "speech, potato" and misspelled words "speach, potatoe"
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Question 16
Multiple Choice

In the lexical decision task, participants are asked to

Choose correct answer/s
A
separate a sentence into individual words.
B
decide which meaning of an ambiguous sentence is correct in a specific situation.
C
identify words that are contained in sentences.
D
decide whether a string of letters is a word or a nonword.
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Question 17
Multiple Choice

A researcher had participants read each of the sentences below and measured the time it took to read each sentence.
Trial 1: The lamb ran past the cottage into the pasture.
Trial 2: The dog ran past the house into the yard.
The participants' response times were longer for ____________________ because of the ____________________ effect.

Choose correct answer/s
A
trial 2; word frequency
B
trial 1; word frequency
C
trial 2; word superiority
D
trial 1; word superiority
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Question 18
Multiple Choice

Within the realm of conversational speech, knowledge refers to the

Choose correct answer/s
A
meaning of a conversation.
B
rules for combining spoken words into sentences.
C
tendency to see relationships between spoken concepts even when those relationships do not exist.
D
previously understood information that we bring into the conversation.
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Question 19
Multiple Choice

Lexical ambiguity studies show that people access ambiguous words based on

Choose correct answer/s
A
the identification of a single meaning for that word.
B
the meaning dominance of each definition of the word.
C
the word that comes immediately before and the word that comes immediately after the ambiguous word in the sentence.
D
a bottom-up progression of meaning comprehension.
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Question 20
Multiple Choice

In a study, participants listened to the following tape recording:
Rumor had it that, for years, the government building had been plagued with problems. The man was not surprised when he found several spiders, roaches, and other bugs in the corner of the room.
As participants heard the word "bugs," they completed a lexical decision task to a test stimulus flashed on a screen. To which of the following words would you expect participants to take the longest to respond to?

Choose correct answer/s
A
ANT
B
SPY
C
SKY
D
ROACH
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