Learning And Decision Making

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Question 1
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Learning refers to the process of generating and choosing from a set of alternatives to solve a problem.

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Question 2
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Decision making reflects relatively permanent changes in an employee's knowledge and skills that result from experience.

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Question 3
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Research shows that the difference between experts and novices is almost always a function of intelligence as opposed to the more popular view that learning makes the difference.

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Question 4
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True/False

Tacit knowledge is the kind of information that can be easily communicated during training sessions or using written manuals.

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Question 5
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The entire process of reinforcement is a continuous cycle, and the repetition of behaviors is strengthened to the degree that reinforcement continues to occur.

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Question 6
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For positive reinforcement to be successful, employees needs to see a direct link between their behavior and the desired outcome.

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Question 7
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Company meetings tend to run long because Dmitri invariably raises irrelevant points that get everyone off track discussing something that has nothing to do with the business at hand. He seems to enjoy this, but Sandra, his manager, finds it extremely annoying. Without Dmitri knowing it, she has instructed the others to remain silent the next time he tries to get everyone talking about something unrelated to the discussion. In an effort to change Dmitri's behavior, Sandra is using the contingency of reinforcement known as extinction.

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Question 8
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Research has consistently shown that fixed reinforcement schedules lead to higher levels of performance than variable schedules.

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Question 9
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Those with a performance-prove orientation focus on demonstrating their competence so that others will not think poorly of them.

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Question 10
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Because of their tacit knowledge, experts sometimes cannot put into words why they know that a problem exists, why a solution will work, or how they accomplished a task.

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Question 11
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The rational decision-making model offers a step-by-step approach to making decisions that maximizes outcomes by examining all available alternatives.

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Question 12
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Under enormous pressure to make a decision, Emily ends up selecting the first acceptable solution without considering any more possibilities. Emily has engaged in satisficing behavior.

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Question 13
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Projection bias causes problems in decision making because it limits our ability to develop appropriate criteria for a decision and evaluate decisions carefully.

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Question 14
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Elaine is now a division manager, but for more than a decade she was the sales manager, and she tends to view all organizational problems based on the effect they will have on the sales department. Her decisions are flawed due to projection bias.

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Question 15
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The self-serving bias occurs when we attribute our own failures to external factors and our own successes to internal factors.

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Question 16
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Escalation of commitment refers to the decision to continue to follow a failing course of action.

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Question 17
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Learning is moderately correlated with task performance.

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Question 18
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Learning has a weak positive effect on commitment.

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Question 19
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Communities of practice are groups of employees who work together and learn from one another by collaborating over an extended period of time.

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Question 20
Multiple Choice

Relatively permanent changes in an employee's knowledge or skill that result from experience are reflected in that person's

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A
learning.
B
intuition.
C
expertise.
D
heuristics.
E
consistency.
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