Long-term Memory: Encoding, Retrieval, And Consolidation

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Question 1
Free
Multiple Choice

Acquiring information and transforming it into long-term memory is

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A

state-dependent learning.

B

encoding.

C

memory consolidation.

D

transfer-appropriate processing.

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Question 2
Free
Multiple Choice

Elaborative rehearsal of a word will LEAST likely be accomplished by

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A

repeating it over and over.

B

linking the new word to a previously learned concept.

C

using it in a sentence.

D

thinking of its synonyms and antonyms.

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Question 3
Free
Multiple Choice

How would you describe the relationship between elaborative rehearsal and maintenance rehearsal in terms of establishing long-term memories?

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A

Elaborative is more effective than maintenance.

B

Maintenance is more effective than elaborative.

C

Both are equally effective in all learning circumstances.

D

Each one is sometimes more effective, depending on the learning circumstances.

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Question 4
Free
Multiple Choice

Elementary school students in the United States are often taught to use the very familiar word "HOMES" as a cue for remembering the names of the Great Lakes (each letter in "HOMES" provides a first-letter cue for one of the lakes: Huron, Ontario, Michigan, Erie, Superior). This memory procedure usually works better than repeating the names over and over. The use of this familiar word provides an example of

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A

a self-reference effect.

B

repetition priming.

C

implicit memory.

D

elaborative rehearsal.

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Question 5
Free
Multiple Choice

Which of the following scenarios best illustrates how effective or ineffective maintenance rehearsal is in transferring information into long-term memory?

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A

Sanjay recalls his grandmother's house where he grew up, even though he hasn't been there for 22 years.

B

Ben learned his martial arts moves by making up "short stories" and mental images to describe each movement.

C

Renee starred in the lead role of her high school play a few years ago. Although she helped write the play and based her character on her own life, she cannot remember many of the actual lines of dialogue anymore.

D

Serena's keys were stolen from her purse. She cannot give a detailed description of her keychain to the police, even though she used it every day for three years.

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Question 6
Multiple Choice

The maintenance rehearsal task of learning a word by repeating it over and over again is most likely to

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A
lead to immediate decay due to retroactive interference.
B
produce some short-term remembering, but fail to produce longer-term memories.
C
cause sensory memories to interfere with consolidation in working memory.
D
lead to effective autobiographical memories.
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Question 7
Multiple Choice

According to the levels of processing theory, memory durability depends on the depth at which information is

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A
encoded.
B
stored.
C
retrieved.
D
consolidated.
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Question 8
Multiple Choice

According to the levels of processing theory, which of the following tasks will produce the best long-term memory for a set of words?

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A
Making a connection between each word and something you've previously learned
B
Deciding how many vowels each word has
C
Generating a rhyming word for each word to be remembered
D
Repeating the words over and over in your mind
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Question 9
Multiple Choice

Which statement below is most closely associated with levels of processing theory?

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A
Information enters memory by passing through a number of levels, beginning with sensory memory, then short-term memory, then long-term memory.
B
Events that are repeated enough can influence our behavior, even after we have forgotten the original events.
C
Deep processing involves paying closer attention to a stimulus than shallow processing and results in better processing.
D
People who were sad when they studied did better when they were sad during testing.
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Question 10
Multiple Choice

Which of the following learning techniques is LEAST likely to lead to deep processing of the information?

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A
Terrell is trying to understand how to use statistics by drawing associations between a set of data describing how adolescents respond to peer pressure and the theories he learned last semester in developmental psychology.
B
Maggie is trying to learn new vocabulary words because she is taking the SAT next month. Each day, she selects one word. Throughout the day, she repeats the definition over and over to herself and generates sentences using it in her conversations that day.
C
Thuy has just bought a new car and is trying to learn her new license plate sequence. Every morning, for three weeks, she repeats the sequence out loud when she wakes up.
D
For his history course, Jorge is trying to learn the order of the U.S. presidents by creating a silly sentence where each consecutive word starts with the same letter of the next president to be remembered.
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Question 11
Multiple Choice

According to your text, imagery enhances memory because

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A
research shows people like pictures better than words, so there is an enhanced emotional response.
B
the brain processes images more easily than the meanings of words.
C
imagery can be used to create connections between items to be remembered.
D
pictures fit better with our basic instincts because children learn pictures before reading words.
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Question 12
Multiple Choice

Jeannie loves to dance, having taken ballet for many years. She is now learning salsa dancing. Although the movements are very different from the dances she is familiar with, she has found a successful memory strategy of linking the new dance information to her previous experiences as a dancer and to her own affection for dance. This strategy suggests reliance on

Choose correct answer/s
A
the self-reference effect.
B
a mass practice effect.
C
the integrative experience effect.
D
semantic memory.
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Question 13
Multiple Choice

In Slameka and Graf's (1978) study, some participants read word pairs, while other participants had to fill in the blank letters of the second word in a pair with a word related to the first word. The latter group performed better on a later memory task, illustrating the

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A
spacing effect.
B
generation effect.
C
cued recall effect.
D
multiple trace hypothesis.
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Question 14
Multiple Choice

___________ cues help us remember information that has been stored in memory.

Choose correct answer/s
A
Retrograde
B
Encoding
C
Retrieval
D
Processing
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Question 15
Multiple Choice

Free recall of the stimulus list "apple, desk, shoe, sofa, plum, chair, cherry, coat, lamp, pants" will most likely yield which of these response patterns?

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A
"apple, desk, shoe, coat, lamp, pants"
B
"apple, desk, shoe, sofa, plum, chair, cherry, coat, lamp, pants"
C
"apple, cherry, plum, shoe, coat, pants, lamp, chair"
D
"apple, chair, cherry, coat, desk, lamp, plum, shoe, sofa"
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Question 16
Multiple Choice

Jenkins and Russell (1952) presented a list of words like "chair, apple, dish, shoe, cherry, sofa" to participants. In a test, participants recalled the words in a different order than the order in which they were originally presented. This result occurred because of the

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A
tendency of objects in the same category to become organized.
B
effect of proactive interference.
C
way objects like dishes and shoes are encoded visually.
D
way the phonological loop reorganizes information based on sound during rehearsal.
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Question 17
Multiple Choice

Bransford and Johnson's study had participants hear a passage, which turned out to be about a man on the street serenading his girlfriend in a tall building. The wording of the passage made it difficult to understand, but looking at a picture made it easier to understand. The results of this study illustrated the importance of ___________ in forming reliable long-term memories.

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A
implicit memory
B
organizational context
C
reconsolidation
D
imagery
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Question 18
Multiple Choice

The story in the text about the balloons that were used to suspend a speaker in mid-air was used to illustrate the role of ___________ in memory.

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A
rehearsal
B
organization
C
depth of processing
D
forming connections with other information
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Question 19
Multiple Choice

Examples from your book describing real experiences of how memories, even ones from a long time ago, can be stimulated by locations, songs, and smells highlight the importance of ___________ in long-term memory.

Choose correct answer/s
A
long-term potentiation
B
retrieval cues
C
elaborative rehearsal
D
mass practice
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Question 20
Multiple Choice

Mantyla's "banana/yellow, bunches, edible" experiment demonstrates that for best memory performance, retrieval cues should be created

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A
by agreement among many people, thus providing proof they are effective.
B
by a memory expert who understands what makes cues effective.
C
using visual images.
D
by the person whose memory will be tested.
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