Long-term Memory: Structure

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Question 1
Free
Multiple Choice

The primacy effect is attributed to

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A

recall of information stored in long-term memory.

B

a type of rehearsal that improves memory for all items in a list.

C

recall of information still active in short-term memory.

D

forgetting of early items in a list as they are replaced by later items.

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Question 2
Free
Multiple Choice

The primacy effect (from the serial position curve experiment) is associated with ___________ memory.

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A

long-term

B

short-term

C

sensory

D

implicit

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Question 3
Free
Multiple Choice

Murdoch's "remembering a list" experiment described the serial position curve and found that memory is best for ___________ of a list.

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A

the first words

B

the middle words

C

the last words

D

both the first and last words

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Question 4
Free
Multiple Choice

When investigating the serial position curve, delaying the memory test for 30 seconds

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A

has no effect on the curve.

B

increases the primacy effect.

C

decreases the recency effect.

D

increases both the primacy and the recency effects.

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Question 5
Free
Multiple Choice

Regarding free recall of a list of items, which of the following will most likely cause the recency effect to disappear by preventing rehearsal?

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A

Inserting a 30-second delay before recall

B

Presenting the stimulus list at a slower pace

C

Counting backward for 30 seconds before recall

D

Using a very long list (greater than 30 items at one item per second)

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Question 6
Multiple Choice

The recency effect occurs when participants are asked to recall a list of words. One way to eliminate the recency effect is to

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A
have participants say "la, la, la" while studying the list.
B
present the list more slowly.
C
have participants count backwards for 30 seconds after hearing the last word of the list.
D
have participants see the words on a screen, rather than hear them.
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Question 7
Multiple Choice

The predominant type of coding in long-term memory is

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A
phonological.
B
concrete.
C
semantic.
D
visual.
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Question 8
Multiple Choice

This multiple-choice question is an example of a ___________ test.

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A
recall
B
recognition
C
word-completion
D
personal semantic memory
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Question 9
Multiple Choice

Lamar has just gotten a new job and is attending a company party where he will meet his colleagues for the first time. His boss escorts him around to small groups to introduce him. At the first group, Lamar meets four people and is told only their first names. The same thing happens with a second group and a third group. At the fourth group, Lamar is told their names and that one of the women in the group is the company accountant. A little while later, Lamar realizes that he only remembers the names of the people in the first group, though he also remembers the profession of the last woman he met (the accountant). Lamar's experience demonstrates

Choose correct answer/s
A
the phonological similarity effect.
B
a build-up and release of proactive interference.
C
the cocktail party phenomenon.
D
a partial-report procedure.
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Question 10
Multiple Choice

Wickens et al.'s "fruit, meat, and professions" experiment failed to show a release from proactive interference in the "fruit" group because

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A
the stimulus category changed.
B
the stimulus category remained the same.
C
the response task changed.
D
the response task remained the same.
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Question 11
Multiple Choice

In which of the following examples of two different brain-injured patients (Tom and Tim) is a double dissociation demonstrated?

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A
Both Tom and Tim have good episodic memory but poor semantic memory.
B
Tom and Tim both show deficits in episodic and semantic memory.
C
Tom has good semantic memory and poor episodic memory, while Tim has good episodic memory but poor semantic memory.
D
Both Tom and Tim have good semantic memory but poor episodic memory.
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Question 12
Multiple Choice

The dramatic case of patient H.M. clearly illustrates that ___________ is crucial for the formation of long-term memories.

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A
the hippocampus
B
synaptic consolidation
C
vitamin B1
D
deep processing
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Question 13
Multiple Choice

Your book discusses the memory functioning of patient H.M. who underwent brain surgery to relieve severe epileptic seizures. H.M.'s case has been extremely informative to psychologists by demonstrating that

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A
long-term memory can operate normally while short-term memory is impaired.
B
impairment of one memory system (long-term or short-term) necessarily leads to deficits in the functioning of the other.
C
a double dissociation exists for short-term and long-term memory.
D
short-term memory can operate normally while long-term memory is impaired.
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Question 14
Multiple Choice

Which of the following is NOT a conclusion from the case of H.M., who had an operation to help alleviate his epileptic seizures?

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A
The hippocampus is necessary for forming new long-term memories.
B
Short-term and long-term memories are controlled by different mechanisms.
C
Short-term and long-term memories can operate independently of each other.
D
Long-term memories are unaffected by damage to the hippocampus.
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Question 15
Multiple Choice

Neuropsychological evidence indicates that short- and long-term memories probably

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A
represent different aspects of the same mechanism.
B
are caused by different mechanisms that depend upon each other.
C
both rely most heavily on a semantic coding mechanism.
D
are caused by different mechanisms that act independently.
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Question 16
Multiple Choice

___________ memories are those that we are not aware of.

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A
Implicit
B
Explicit
C
Declarative
D
All of these are correct
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Question 17
Multiple Choice

Explicit memory is to ___________ as implicit memory is to ___________ .

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A
aware; unaware
B
self; others
C
primacy; recency
D
episodic; semantic
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Question 18
Multiple Choice

Which of the following is NOT an example of an implicit memory?

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A
Classical conditioning
B
Repetition priming
C
Procedural memory
D
Semantic memory
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Question 19
Multiple Choice

___________ memories are to experiences as ___________ memories are to facts.

Choose correct answer/s
A
Semantic; implicit
B
Implicit; episodic
C
Episodic; semantic
D
Procedural; episodic
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Question 20
Multiple Choice

According to Tulving, the defining property of the experience of episodic memory is that

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A
it involves mental time travel.
B
it always corresponds to events from our past that actually happened.
C
it accesses knowledge about the world that does not have to be tied to any specific personal experience.
D
it involves both explicit and implicit memories.
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