Problem Solving

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Question 1
Free
Multiple Choice

Janet is alone in a room that contains a chair and a shelf with a book resting on top. She attempts to retrieve the book, but the shelf is a foot above her reach. How will Janet retrieve the book? Psychologists would NOT classify this scenario as a problem because

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A

the solution is immediately obvious.

B

there is an obstacle between the present state and the goal state.

C

the initial state is not clearly defined.

D

the goal state is not clearly defined.

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Question 2
Free
Multiple Choice

Which of the following is not part of a complete definition of a problem?

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A

Is difficult

B

Involves obstacles between one's current state and a desired goal

C

Has one correct answer

D

The solution is not obvious

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Question 3
Free
Multiple Choice

Gestalt psychologists consider problem solving as a process involving

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A

reorganization or restructuring.

B

multiple goal states.

C

sensory operators.

D

continuity and form.

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Question 4
Free
Multiple Choice

The circle problem, in which the task is to determine the length of a line inside a circle, was proposed to illustrate

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A

how analogies can be used to solve problems.

B

means-end analysis.

C

representation and restructuring.

D

the problem space.

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Question 5
Free
Multiple Choice

Insight refers to

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A

prior learning facilitating problem solving.

B

prior learning hindering problem solving.

C

the tendency to respond in a certain manner, based on past experience.

D

the sudden realization of a problem's solution.

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Question 6
Multiple Choice

Metcalfe and Wiebe gave participants problems to solve and asked them to make "warmth" judgments every 15 seconds to indicate how close they felt they were to a solution. The purpose of this experiment was to

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A
demonstrate a difference between how people solve insight and non-insight problems.
B
show how people progress through the problem space as they solve a problem.
C
show that some problems are easier to solve than others.
D
measure the time-course of solving well-defined versus ill-defined problems.
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Question 7
Multiple Choice

Warmth judgments on nearness to a solution _________________ prior to the solution of an insight problem and _________________ prior to the solution of a non-insight problem.

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A
gradually rise; gradually rise
B
gradually rise; rise suddenly just
C
rise suddenly just; gradually rise
D
vary unpredictably; vary unpredictably
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Question 8
Multiple Choice

Functional fixedness would be LOWEST for a(n)

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A
novel object.
B
familiar object.
C
frequently used object.
D
object with a specific function.
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Question 9
Multiple Choice

Holly was in her mother-in-law's kitchen preparing lunch for the family. When she was ready to dish up the soup, she searched all the cupboards and drawers for a ladle but couldn't find one. She decided to wait until her mother-in-law returned to ask her where the ladle was, leaving the soup in the stove pot. Her mother-in-law later explained that the ladle had been broken, so she told Holly to use a coffee mug to "spoon" the soup into bowls. Holly's ability to solve the "dish up the soup" problem was hindered by which of the following obstacles?

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A
Discriminability
B
Perseveration
C
Divergent thinking
D
Functional fixedness
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Question 10
Multiple Choice

Which of the following provides the best example of functional fixedness?

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A
Using a pair of pliers as a paperweight
B
Using a tire as a football practice target
C
Using a juice glass as a container for orange juice
D
Using a wine bottle as a vase
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Question 11
Multiple Choice

Illustrative of functional fixedness, people are more likely to solve the candle problem if

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A
fewer tacks are provided.
B
pliers are also presented.
C
the box is empty.
D
the candle is already lit.
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Question 12
Multiple Choice

Which problem provides an example of how functional fixedness can hinder solution of a problem?

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A
Tower of Hanoi problem
B
Two-string problem
C
Mutilated checkerboard problem
D
The radiation problem
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Question 13
Multiple Choice

In the two-string problem, tying the pliers to one of the strings best represents a(n) _________________ state.

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A
functional fixedness
B
goal
C
intermediate
D
initial
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Question 14
Multiple Choice

The water-jug problem demonstrates that one consequence of having a procedure that does provide a solution to a problem is that, if well-learned, it may prevent us from

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A
seeing more efficient solutions to the problem.
B
being able to solve other problems at all.
C
understanding why the procedure works successfully.
D
discriminating between well- and ill-defined problems.
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Question 15
Multiple Choice

Amber lives in a housing development between two parallel streets that both connect to a freeway. She usually takes the street to the south when heading southbound on the freeway to work, but that street is closed for repairs for three months. Amber takes the street to the north during that time. After the street to the south is re-opened, she continues to take the street to the north, even though it is a slightly longer route. Continuing to take the street to the north represents

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A
a single dissociation.
B
a source problem.
C
a mental set.
D
convergent thinking.
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Question 16
Multiple Choice

Newell and Simon were early pioneers in designing computer programs that could solve problems. Their research program was based on the idea that problem solving is a process that involves

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A
insight.
B
algorithms.
C
parity.
D
search.
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Question 17
Multiple Choice

In the Tower of Hanoi problem, the _________________ state involves having three discs stacked on the left peg, with the middle and right pegs empty.

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A
transitory
B
goal
C
intermediate
D
initial
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Question 18
Multiple Choice

Actions that take the problem from one state to another are known as

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A
intermediate states.
B
subgoals.
C
operators.
D
mental sets.
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Question 19
Multiple Choice

The elements of the problem space include all of the following EXCEPT

Choose correct answer/s
A
initial state.
B
operators.
C
goal state.
D
intermediate states.
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Question 20
Multiple Choice

The typical purpose of subgoals is to

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A
solve insight problems.
B
move the solver directly from the initial state to the goal state.
C
bring the problem solver closer and closer to the goal state.
D
avoid the need to perform means-end analysis.
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