Respiratory System Disorders

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Question 1
Free
Multiple Choice

What happens in the lungs when the diaphragm and external intercostal muscles relax?

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A

Air is forced out of the lungs.

B

Lung volume increases.

C

Intrapulmonic pressure decreases.

D

Intrapleural pressure decreases.

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Question 2
Free
Multiple Choice

Which of the following activities does NOT require muscle contractions and energy?

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A

Quiet inspiration

B

Forced inspiration

C

Quiet expiration

D

Forced expiration

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Question 3
Free
Multiple Choice

The maximum volume of air a person can exhale after a maximum inspiration is termed the:

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A

expiratory reserve volume.

B

inspiratory reserve volume.

C

total lung capacity.

D

vital capacity.

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Question 4
Free
Multiple Choice

Which of the following applies to the blood in the pulmonary artery?

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A

PCO2 is low.

B

PO2 is low.

C

Hydrostatic pressure is very high.

D

It is flowing into the left atrium.

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Question 5
Free
Multiple Choice

Which of the following causes bronchodilation?

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A

Epinephrine

B

Histamine

C

Parasympathetic nervous system

D

Drugs that block b2-adrenergic receptors

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Question 6
Multiple Choice

The central chemoreceptors in the medulla are normally most sensitive to:

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A
low oxygen level.
B
low concentration of hydrogen ions.
C
elevated oxygen level.
D
elevated carbon dioxide level.
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Question 7
Multiple Choice

Oxygen diffuses from the alveoli to the blood because:

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A
PO2 is higher in the blood.
B
PO2 is lower in the blood.
C
CO2 is diffusing out of the blood.
D
more CO2 is diffusing out of cells into the blood.
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Question 8
Multiple Choice

Carbon dioxide is primarily transported in the blood:

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A
as dissolved gas.
B
attached to the iron molecule in hemoglobin.
C
as bicarbonate ion.
D
as carbonic acid.
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Question 9
Multiple Choice

What would hypercapnia cause?

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A
Increased serum pH
B
Decreased respirations
C
Respiratory acidosis
D
Decreased carbonic acid in the blood
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Question 10
Multiple Choice

Which of the following would result from hyperventilation?

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A
Respiratory acidosis
B
Respiratory alkalosis
C
Metabolic alkalosis
D
Metabolic acidosis
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Question 11
Multiple Choice

Which of the following values is always decreased with respiratory alkalosis (compensated or decompensated)?

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A
Serum bicarbonate
B
PaCO2
C
Serum pH
D
Urine pH
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Question 12
Multiple Choice

What would be the most effective compensation for respiratory acidosis?

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A
The kidneys eliminating more bicarbonate ions
B
The kidneys producing more bicarbonate ions
C
The kidneys reabsorbing more hydrogen ions
D
An increase in respiratory rate
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Question 13
Multiple Choice

What is the acid-base status of a patient with the following values for arterial blood gases? serum bicarbonate 36.5 mmol/L (normal range: 22-28)
PCO? 75 mm Hg (normal range: 35-45)
Serum pH 7.0

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A
Compensated metabolic acidosis
B
Decompensated metabolic acidosis
C
Compensated respiratory acidosis
D
Decompensated respiratory acidosis
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Question 14
Multiple Choice

What does carbaminohemoglobin refer to?

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A
Replacement of oxygen by carbon monoxide on hemoglobin molecules
B
Full saturation of all heme molecules by oxygen
C
Carbon dioxide attached to an amino group on the hemoglobin molecule
D
Oxygen combined with iron in the hemoglobin molecule
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Question 15
Multiple Choice

Approximately what percentage of bound oxygen is released to the cells for metabolism during an erythrocyte's journey through the circulatory system?

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A
80%
B
25%
C
10%
D
50%
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Question 16
Multiple Choice

The production of yellowish-green, cloudy, thick sputum is often an indication of:

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A
bacterial infection.
B
cancer tumor.
C
damage of lung tissue due to smoking.
D
emphysema.
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Question 17
Multiple Choice

What does the term hemoptysis refer to?

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A
Thick, dark red sputum associated with pneumococcal infection
B
Reddish-brown granular blood found in vomitus
C
Bright red streaks of blood in frothy sputum
D
Bloody exudate in the pleural cavity
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Question 18
Multiple Choice

Orthopnea is:

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A
very deep, rapid respirations.
B
difficulty breathing when lying down.
C
waking up suddenly, coughing, and struggling for breath.
D
noisy breathing with stridor or rhonchi.
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Question 19
Multiple Choice

Light bubbly or crackling breathing sounds associated with serous secretions are called:

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A
rhonchi.
B
stridor.
C
rales.
D
wheezing.
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Question 20
Multiple Choice

Choose the correct information applying to laryngotracheobronchitis:

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A
Viral infection in infant under 12 months
B
Viral infection in child, 3 months to 3 years
C
Bacterial infection in infant under 6 months
D
Bacterial infection in child, 3 to 7 years
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