Taking Action

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Question 1
Free
Multiple Choice

 The ecological approach emerged as a reaction _____ .

Choose correct answer/s
A

to the structuralist approach

B

to the artificiality of laboratory approach to studying vision

C

to the over-reliance on brain imaging techniques

D

to pointillism

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Question 2
Free
Multiple Choice

 The ecological approach was developed by _____ .

Choose correct answer/s
A

J.J. Gibson

B

David Marr

C

Max Wertheimer

D

Ronald Rensink

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Question 3
Free
Multiple Choice

 The movement of elements of the environment relative to the observer is called _____ .

Choose correct answer/s
A

optic flow

B

the phi movement

C

an affordance

D

motion ecology

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Question 4
Free
Multiple Choice

 You are driving a car. Which statement is an accurate reflection of flow in this situation?

Choose correct answer/s
A

Optic flow is slower near the car.

B

Optic flow does not occur for information in the periphery.

C

Optic flow is faster farther away from the car.

D

Optic flow does not occur for the focus of expansion.

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Question 5
Free
Multiple Choice

 Information that remains constant even though the observer is moving is called _____ .

Choose correct answer/s
A

a flow gradient

B

a texture gradient

C

a penumbra constant

D

invariant information

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Question 6
Multiple Choice

 Which statement is true concerning the focus of expansion?

Choose correct answer/s
A
It always occurs at the point you are fixated on.
B
It always occurs at the point you are moving toward.
C
It continues in the same direction once established.
D
It always contains the fastest flow of information.
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Question 7
Multiple Choice

 When expert gymnasts close their eyes while performing a somersault, they perform _____ .

Choose correct answer/s
A
better because they eliminated visual distractions
B
as well as with their eyes open, since doing the routine is automatic
C
more poorly, because they couldn't make "in-air" corrections
D
better because they usually train with their eyes closed
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Question 8
Multiple Choice

 According to Gibson, the relationship between movement and flow is _____ .

Choose correct answer/s
A
movement creates flow, which then provides information to guiding further movement
B
movement creates flow, but this information does not affect further movement
C
flow and self-produced movement are related, but both are independent of guiding further movement
D
flow and movement are not related
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Question 9
Multiple Choice

 If you close both your eyes while standing on one foot, _____ .

Choose correct answer/s
A
you can stand longer than if both eyes are open because you eliminate distracting visual information
B
you can stand longer than if just your "non-dominant" eye is open
C
you can stand longer with one eye open because you are eliminating binocular disparity cues
D
you lose your balance more quickly than if your eyes are open
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Question 10
Multiple Choice

 Lee et al.'s "Swinging Room" studies found that _____ .

Choose correct answer/s
A
only adults are affected by flow information
B
only young children are affected by flow information
C
children will lean back when a forward-swaying flow pattern was created
D
adults were always able to keep their balance in the moving room
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Question 11
Multiple Choice

 In Lee and Aronson's experiment, although a few of the toddlers were unaffected by the sway, _____ fell down, even though the floor remained stationary throughout the entire experiment!

Choose correct answer/s
A
22%
B
33%
C
44%
D
55%
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Question 12
Multiple Choice

 When novices close their eyes when trying a somersault, _____ .

Choose correct answer/s
A
their performance typically improves
B
there is no impact on their performance
C
their performance is not degraded as much as is the performance of experts
D
their performance seems to change randomly
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Question 13
Multiple Choice

 Gibson emphasized studying _____ .

Choose correct answer/s
A
each sense in isolation
B
tightly-controlled laboratory experiments
C
invariant information from the environment
D
invariant sensory functions
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Question 14
Multiple Choice

 The swinging room experiments showed that _____ .

Choose correct answer/s
A
vision can override the traditional sources of balance information
B
traditional sources of balance information cannot be overridden?
C
traditional sources of balance information can only be overridden in experienced adults
D
traditional sources of balance information can be integrated with but not overridden by other senses
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Question 15
Multiple Choice

 According to Land and Lee, drivers look _____ when driving on a straight road.

Choose correct answer/s
A
directly at the focus of expansion
B
straight ahead, but not directly at the focus of expansion
C
at locomotor flow line
D
at the psychometric curb
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Question 16
Multiple Choice

 According to Land and Lee, drivers negotiate curves by _____ .

Choose correct answer/s
A
looking directly at the FOE
B
looking directly at the road
C
using a complex combination of affordances
D
using information in addition to optic flow
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Question 17
Multiple Choice

 "Blind walking" studies have shown that _____ .

Choose correct answer/s
A
participants cannot locate nearby objects with their eyes closed
B
flow information is necessary for navigation; blindfolded participants cannot walk to a target location they have just seen
C
blindfolded participants can navigate short distances as long as they walk in a straight line
D
blindfolded participants can navigate short distances when walking in a straight line or making an angled turn
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Question 18
Multiple Choice

 Using the visual direction strategy, walkers stay on target by _____ .

Choose correct answer/s
A
using flow information to estimate the destination point?
B
going toward the focus of expansion
C
keeping their body pointed toward the destination
D
keeping their eyes fixated on the destination
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Question 19
Multiple Choice

 Hamid et al. (2010) had participants navigate a maze while recording their eye movements. The maze contained landmarks on the walls at corners and at other positions that would not aid maze navigation. After participants learned the maze, the researchers removed half of the landmarks. The results of this study revealed that _____ .

Choose correct answer/s
A
performance decreased when landmarks that had been viewedlongerwere removed
B
participants did not notice that the landmarks were missing and their performance was unaffected
C
participants had been relying on all landmarks to navigate
D
performance increased when non-informative landmarks were removed
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Question 20
Multiple Choice

 In Janzen and vanTurennout's study of using landmarks as "decision points" in a navigating through a museum, participants _____ .

Choose correct answer/s
A
had greater brain activation in the MST when they saw "non-decision" points than when they saw "decision points"
B
had lower recognition scores for landmarks than non-landmarks
C
had greater brain activation in the parahippocampal gyrus for "decision points" than "non-decision points"
D
recognized "decision points" better when cells in their temporal cortex were microstimulated
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